SkyActiv 2.5T Cold Side Boost Tube Part 2: Testing

In case you missed it, we have been working on improving the flimsy rubber tube that comes stock on the cold side of your 2018+ Mazda 6 2.5T. Check out the first part on the cold side boost tube here and the full OEM piping & intercooler breakdown here. Since our last installment, we have been busy testing a prototype CorkSport Boost Tube and would like to share some results with you all.

Starting off we tested and data logged both the OEM tube and CorkSport Performance Boost Tube on the dyno. We were not expecting to see too much of a difference to power with just the boost tube changing however, we did see tiny improvements here and there, most notably way up at the top of the RPM range.

Check out the graph below, OEM=red, CS=green. We tested on the same day in identical conditions and the car had a CorkSport Intake and Cat Back Exhaust installed for both tests. PLEASE NOTE: the variations below 2800RPM are due to inconsistencies associated with dyno testing an automatic car.

After noticing these changes, we went to the data logs to see how the boost changed between the OEM tube and the CS Boost Tube. The graph below shows the engine RPM versus the manifold pressure in psi. Both lines have the same smoothing done to the raw data. As you can see, the CorkSport tube (green) holds about 0.5psi through the midrange (3500-5000RPM) and is almost 1psi more when above 5500RPM. This correlates well with what we saw while dyno testing.

The small increase in boost pressure is likely due to the CorkSport tube not expanding as much when under pressure. To confirm this, we capped off both ends and pressurized the each tube to 20psi. Note: do not try this at home as the caps can easily fly off and injure you.

After measuring multiple locations both before and during pressurization, we found that the OEM tube expands about 12% in internal cross-sectional area while the CorkSport Boost Tube expands 3x less at 4%. Keep in mind that this would be an even larger difference if the same test was performed with the tubes installed on the car due to the heat of the engine bay. Since silicone is more stable than rubber at high temperatures, the heat of the engine bay will not soften it nearly as much as the rubber OEM boost tube. A softer rubber tube would mean even more expansion when pressurized and even more inconsistent boost pressures.

This data may not show drastic changes but it does not tell the whole story. The larger diameter and thus larger volume of boosted air of the CS tube provides a little bit better response when low in the RPM range. While this may just be a placebo effect on our end, there’s not too much of a wait before you can try it yourselves! Stay tuned for more information. If you want a more serious upgrade though, keep your eyes out for information on the upcoming CorkSport FMIC kit and Piping Upgrade kit!

P.S. 2016+ Mazda CX-9 owners and future Mazda CX-5 2.5T owners, don’t worry we will be checking this for fitment along with other CS goodies!

-Daniel @ CorkSport

SkyActiv 2.5T: Let’s Talk Intercooler Pipe Upgrades

We recently went over the stock intercooler & piping system for the 2018+ Mazda 6 2.5T. If you missed it, be sure to check out the blog HERE.

Today, it’s the first look at the CorkSport parts that will be coming in the near future to remedy the issues we found with the OEM system. We are not covering our upgraded intercooler just yet though; today’s focus is piping upgrades!

As you can see we’ve been busy getting the upgraded intercooler piping designed & 3D printed for test fitting (while you can’t see it I promise the cold pipe is hanging out in there too!). I’m happy to say there’s plenty of room to fit the upgraded piping sizes that we were targeting and hopefully they will net us a few HP gain without any other changes.

These horsepower gains typically comes from removing sharp bends and diameter reductions in the stock piping that cause pressure losses. Then, the turbocharger can operate more efficiently to reach the desired boost level. Now how about some more detail on how and why each pipe has changed.

Starting off with the hot side of things (piping from turbo to intercooler), check out the CAD image above. As you can see, the OEM piping (left) is smaller than the CorkSport piping (right). In fact, we plan to use 2.25” piping for the hot side. Note that the plastic OEM piping is much thicker wall than the CS aluminum piping so even if the outer diameter looks similar, the inside diameter is much larger.

In addition, we keep this same inside diameter throughout while the OEM piping has a major diameter reduction through the middle. For those of you coming from a Mazdaspeed 3, 2.25” is the same size used on the hot side of all CS intercooler kits and has proven itself to support 600+WHP on Barett’s car (more info on that HERE). While we know the Sky-T may not be to that level just yet, 2.25” is a great size that gets the hot air to the intercooler as fast as possible while retaining high horsepower capabilities.

It’s not all about size though. Instead of using many tight radius direction changes like OEM, the CorkSport hot pipe uses smooth, large radius mandrel bends throughout. This means smoother and faster airflow to your intercooler. Lastly, you may notice the CS hot pipe is significantly longer than the OEM hard plastic unit (the OEM rubber tube starts at the connection point circled in the image above). This reduces the amount of flexible connector used, limiting what could expand at high boost levels. That being said, the CorkSport kit will use high strength silicone with four fabric reinforcement layers to prevent any expansion anyways.

The cold side of the system was already a decent diameter from the factory, but as you can see, we went even larger. The rubber OEM cold pipe will be replaced with a 3” diameter aluminum pipe. This large diameter pipe and huge volume of air that comes with it right before the throttle body has proven to help throttle response and reduce boost lag on our GEN2 Mazdaspeed 3 FMIC kit. We hope to get much of the same from the SkyActiv 2.5T. The cold side also uses large radius mandrel bends for smooth and fast airflow.

Lastly, the cold side piping reduces the amount of flexible connector used. And just like the hot side, each end of the pipe will use 4-ply reinforced silicone to prevent any expansion under high boost levels.

Those of you with a keen eye will have realized that our planned silicone connectors do not use the same connection style as the OEM intercooler. This is for good reason: we believe that the OEM intercooler will run out of cooling capacity before the OEM piping really becomes an issue. So a piping upgrade by itself wouldn’t show too much of a performance advantage.

In addition, we were able to design the piping to be the best it can without using the constraints of the OEM intercooler. So yes, the upcoming CorkSport intercooler upgrade will be required for the CS piping upgrade to work, but it’s so the CS piping & FMIC combo can be the best it can be for you all!

For those of you that have stuck around this long, check out this tease of a CAD model of the CorkSport FMIC & Piping kit.

And just because we like teasing you, check this early prototype out. Testing to come soon!

Stay tuned for more, as next time we will cover the intercooler itself. Also let us know your thoughts down below, we love your input!

-Daniel @ CorkSport

2018+ Mazda 6 2.5T OEM Intercooler & Piping Analysis

We’ve already mentioned briefly that we have an upgraded intercooler kit in the works for the SkyActiv 2.5T, but now it’s officially time to dive in and get into how and why an upgraded intercooler kit is a good fit for your 6. To understand how to make a performance part, we first have to understand what makes the stock parts tick and where we can improve them, which is what we will be covering today!

For those of you that are new to the boosted lifestyle, I feel that I should go over a few terms that will be thrown around frequently later in this blog.

  • Hot Side Piping: Also known as just “hot side” or “hot pipes” this piping section carries the pressurized air (boost!) from the turbocharger to the intercooler. As it is before the intercooler, the air has not been cooled and the “hot” name is quite accurate (think 200-250°F. or even more on a turbo that’s too small). Shown above on the right side.

  • Intercooler: A basic heat exchanger. Air flows through the inside and is cooled by air flowing through the outside while you drive down the road. The same way a radiator works except with air inside instead of coolant. It is made up of three parts the “end tanks” and the “core”. The end tanks are what transfer the air from the piping to the core while the core is the actual heat exchanging portion. Shown front and center in the above image.

  • Cold Side Piping: Also known as just “cold side” or “cold pipes” this piping section carries the pressurized air from the intercooler to the engine. As it is after the intercooler, the air has been cooled to make more power. Shown above on the left side.

 

Now into the details…

The hot side piping must make its way all the way from the rear of the engine to the front of the car. The OEM piping takes a pretty direct route, and is a decent diameter for stock piping, starting & finishing at just under 2” inner diameter. This, however, is where the good things end.

To start, the two rubber sections of the hot side are single ply. These allow for good flexibility on install and to allow for engine movement but will start to expand on higher than stock boost levels, increasing boost lag and decreasing throttle response. In the image above, the main rubber section squishes under the small weight of the upper plastic section of the hot pipe. This isn’t even the main issue with the hot side piping!

The upper plastic section of the hot side has quite a few small radius bends, and a few areas where the pipe reduces in diameter severely, affecting the maximum flow and restricting the power of your 2.5T. Check out the worst area below, it’s tiny!

And what might be causing this reduction in diameter you may ask?

That’s right, its clearance for a hose clamp. Mazda, I’ve got to call you out on this one, couldn’t you have just rotated the clamp, and kept the diameter in the pipe? Anyways, on to the intercooler itself.

The intercooler itself isn’t too bad, a decent sized core with lots of fins to help cool as good as it can. That being said, there’s still plenty of room for improvements. First: make it bigger. The intercooler mounting could’ve been simplified to get more width, and there’s a bunch of room to go thicker. While thick is not the best for heat transfer efficiency, it will still help cool off the air better. Height is already more or less maxed out without cutting up the crash beam, but we should be able to make enough extra volume elsewhere to make a big difference.

Intercoolers are a delicate balancing act between cooling efficiency and pressure drop. Cores that cool extremely well usually have a larger pressure drop (loss of pressure from inlet to outlet) and vice versa. With the high fin density of the OEM intercooler, we can expect a relatively high-pressure drop (2-4psi would be my rough guess) but pretty good cooling. From early dyno testing on the CorkSport Short Ram Intake, the intercooler does a good job cooling but loses power on back to back dyno runs. I expect that this is the intercooler “heat soaking”. Heatsoak is what happens when an intercooler is undersized or is not getting enough airflow, it heats up and is no longer able to cool the boost off, robbing you of power.

The two images above show the real Achilles heel of the OEM intercooler and what is likely causing the heatsoak issues: the end tank design. Since the charge air enters and exits the core at an upward angle, it’s being directed away from the lower runners of the core. There is a sharp angle that would be hard for the air to turn, meaning the bottom three internal runners (shown with the red box) are likely not actually doing much. So you’ve got intercooler taking up space that is likely not doing much… We aim to fix this.

The cold side of the system is actually pretty good-inner diameter of just under 2.25” on the ends (even larger in the middle) and a short path into the throttle body. We’ve already covered the basics of it when discussing the upcoming CorkSport boost tube HERE. Like with the hot side, the rubber connector is prone to expansion under increased boost levels. While the CorkSport silicone boost tube will still be coming on its own, we plan to offer something even stiffer that is optimized for our upgraded FMIC kit.

Much more information to come in following blogs as we’ve been busy working away on this project. Stay tuned for full details on the upcoming CorkSport FMIC kit, and if you’ve got any questions, leave them down below.

-Daniel @ CorkSport

Mazda’s Dynamic Pressure Turbo – A Closer Look

There has been a lot of buzz about the new(ish) turbocharged SkyActiv-G 2.5L first found in the Mazda CX-9 and now in the Mazda 6.  Along with all this buzz, there are a lot of unknowns as well. Here at CorkSport, we’ve taken the step to try and address some of these unknowns.  What is Mazda’s “Dynamic Pressure Turbo” and how does it work? There have been diagrams bouncing around on the internet, but no close-up view of the turbocharger itself.  That’s about to change.

If you haven’t already read Daniel’s first installment, “Mazda Dynamic PressureTurbo an Introduction.” You wouldn’t want to miss out on the extra information before reading on.

The turbocharger found in the 2.5T equipped CX-9 and 6 is quite complex in design.  There are many aspects to the OE turbocharger we could discuss, but today we are going to focus solely on the dynamic pressure system and turbine housing.  

If you are reading this, then you’ve probably already seen various diagrams depicting how the dynamic pressure system works and showing Mazda’s clever 3-2-1 exhaust port design.  If you haven’t, check it out below.  Image credit to Car And Driver Magazine for the fantastic diagram.  

Mazda’s 3-2-1 exhaust port design takes full advantage of the engine cylinder firing order.  The advantage is improved exhaust gas scavenging for the adjacent cylinder (more or less the cylinder that just fired helps pull the exhaust gases out of the next cylinder that is about to fire).  Ok moving on; this is great, but how does the dynamic pressure system come into the mix?

Shown here are the turbocharger assembly and the dynamic pressure valve assembled as one unit (the first two images also showed the fully assembled setup).  The three ports are clearly visible along with the “vane” that passes through the three ports. This vane rotates depending on engine RPM to control the exhaust gas velocity entering the turbine housing.  The vane itself is controlled by the larger blue colored actuator.

Now let’s take an even closer look.  The vane does not open until approximately 1600rpm, but the engine could not run of no exhaust gas can flow out of the engine.  To resolve this Mazda has designed the dynamic pressure system with two exhaust gas paths.  Looking at the above image you can see a small opening just above the vane. This is the sub-1600rpm exhaust gas path.  

By reducing the cross-sectional area of the exhaust gas path, the exhaust is forced to accelerate through the dynamic pressure system and into the turbine wheel.  This effectively reduces turbo lag, improving the vehicle’s response at low engine RPM. Once the engine revs past 1600rpm the vane opens, allowing the larger path to be used.   

Here we show the turbocharger assembly (right) and the dynamic pressure valve assembly (left) separated.  Looking at the dynamic pressure valve assembly, you can now more clearly see the three small paths above the larger path with the vane inside.  Then look at the turbocharger assembly and you will see the small upper path and the larger lower path.

The fact that these two assemblies are separate systems is great news for the enthusiast.  The development of a performance turbocharger will be much more feasible and the dynamic pressure valve can be retained with the performance turbocharger.  One more detail to point out.

Mazda put a lot of thought into the design of the wastegate port; let me show you why.  First, looking at the inlet of the turbine housing you can see a small vertical wall in the large path.  This wall creates a completely separate path to the wastegate port which is very unusual on an OE turbocharger. Combine this design with a very large wastegate port and you get a design that can “waste” or divert an excessive amount of exhaust gas.

This tells us the SkyActiv-G 2.5L engine is creating a lot of (currently) unused exhaust gas energy.  Again this supports the feasibility of a performance turbocharger suiting Mazda’s new turbo engine quite well.  

Great things are on the horizon for the 6, now if only Mazda would put this engine in the 3 paired with a 6-speed manual transmission.  Oh, one can dream.

-Barett @ CS

Mazda’s Dynamic Pressure Turbo – An Introduction

The SkyActiv 2.5T has been around for a few years in the CX-9 however, things started to get interesting when the engine was dropped in the Mazda 6 for 2018. While lacking a manual and not a true Mazdaspeed, it’s a step in the right direction for the enthusiast. With one of the new Mazda 6s in the CorkSport garage, we’ve been getting curious about where all of that 310lb-ft comes from. Well we decided to call up Mazda and purchase a turbo to see how it all works.

There’s a lot to take in on the turbocharger and there are quite a few things that have changed from the K04 that made its home in the Speeds.

For starters, this turbocharger is pretty big. The wheels themselves are not large, with the compressor wheel very close in size to the old K04 & the turbine wheel only slightly larger than the K04. However, with the dual inlet turbine housing, 90° compressor outlet, and lots of attached electronics, the whole package takes up a lot of room in your engine bay.

The turbine housing is not far from the old K04. A large five-bolt inlet flange has two rectangular inlets to work with the dynamic pressure system (more on that later) and even a port where the EGR system sources its exhaust gases. The outlet is much simpler, using a five-bolt flange to mount to the downpipe, yet does house a surprisingly large wastegate port.

From a performance standpoint, the large wastegate should help eliminate boost creep but the turbine housing will likely need a larger scroll to get some more serious power out of the engine.

The compressor side is packed full of features. As usual, the wastegate actuator bolts to the compressor housing, however, Mazda has switched to an electric actuator. Interestingly, the bypass valve is also electric and is even mounted to the face of the compressor housing.

Some fancy casting design leaves a pathway between the high and low-pressure sides of the compressor and lets the BPV decide when the passage is open or closed. These two electric actuators will mean easy and consistent boost control. The final plastic component on the housing we believe is a boost assisted vacuum source for the vehicle. Finally, the inlet is a typical clamp connection while the outlet uses a 90° turn and two-bolt flange for better accessibility around the wastegate actuator.

With the housings removed, the CHRA of the dynamic pressure turbo is very simple & standard. Oil feed in the top, two-bolt oil drain in the bottom, and standard crossflow engine coolant ports. The compressor wheel is a cast 6×6 unit and turbine wheel is a basic 11 blade unit.

We are looking forward to waking up the Sky-T in the coming months and making the 2018+ MZ6 into something a little closer to a Speed. Stayed tuned, there’s much more fun to be had from the 2.5T!

-Daniel